Media Online, Jenis dan Karakteristiknya

Media online merupakan media baru (new media) yang muncul di era internet. Saat ini begitu banyak hal yang dengan mudah kita temukan secara online. Berikut ini kita bahas pengertian media online dan karakteristiknya.


Media Online, Jenis dan Karakteristiknya

Pengertian Media Online, Jenis dan Karakteristiknya

Pengertian Media Online

Media online adalah sebutan umum untuk sebuah bentuk media yang berbasis telekomunikasi dan multimedia. Pengertian media online dibagi dua, yaitu pengertian secara umum dan khusus.


Secara umum, pengertian media online adalah sarana komunikasi yang tersaji secara online di internet, seperti situs web (website) dan aplikasi (app). Aplikasi perpesanan seperti WhatsApp dan Telegram termasuuk media online dalam pengertian umum.


Disebut juga media daring (dalam jaringan), media online dalam pengertian umum adalah segala jenis atau format media yang hanya dapat diakses melalui koneksi internet yang berisikan teks, foto, video, dan suara (audio).


Dengan kata lain, media online dapat diartikan sebagai media yang dapat diakses melalui internet.


Dengan pengertian media online secara umum ini, maka email, mailing list, website, dan media sosial masuk dalam kategori media online.


Secara khusus, menurut Asep Syamsul M. Romli (2012) dalam buku Jurnalistik Online: Panduan Praktis Mengelola Media Online, pengertian media online secara khusus adalah dalam konteks media komunikasi massa, yaitu media siber atau situs berita (news site).


Kehadiran media online memunculkan generasi baru jurnalistik, yakni jurnalistik online (online journalism) atau jurnalisme daring.


Jurnalistik online –disebut juga jurnalisme siber, jurnalistik internet, jurnalisme digital, dan jurnalistik web (web journalism)– merupakan “generasi baru” jurnalistik setelah jurnalistik konvensional (cetak) dan jurnalistik penyiaran (broadcast journalism, radio dan televisi).


Pengertian Media Massa

Istilah media sendiri dalam konteks komunikasi massa adalah singkatan dari “media massa” atau “media komunikasi massa”.


Menurut Leksikon Komunikasi, media massa adalah sarana untuk menyampaikan pesan yang berhubungan langsung dengan masyarakat luas, misalnya radio, televisi, dan surat kabar.


Menurut Cangara (2010), media adalah alat atau sarana yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan pesan dari komunikator kepada khalayak. Media massa adalah alat yang digunakan dalam penyampaian pesan dari sumber kepada khalayak dengan menggunakan alat-alat komunikasi seperti surat kabar, film, radio, dan televisi.


Dalam literatur ilmu komunikasi, media massa mempunyai karakteristik sebagai berikut:


Publisitas: disebarluaskan kepada khalayak luas

Universalitas: pesan atau isinya bersifat umum

Periodisitas: terbit tetap atau berkala (rutin)

Kontinuitas: berkesinambungan

Aktualitas: berisi hal-hal baru.

Cangara menyebutkan karakteristik media massa sebagai berikut:


1. Melembaga


Pihak yang mengelola media terdiri dari banyak orang, yakni mulai dari pengumpulan, pengelolaan sampai pada penyajian informasi.


2. Satu Arah


Komunikasi yang dilakukan kurang memungkinkan terjadinya dialog antara pengirim dan penerima. Kalaupun terjadi reaksi atau umpan balik, biasanya memerlukan waktu dan tertunda.


3. Meluas dan serempak


Dapat mengatasi rintangan waktu dan jarak, karena ia memiliki kecepatan. Bergerak secara luas dan simultan, dimana informasi yang disampaikan diterima oleh banyak orang dalam waktu yang sama.


4. Menggunakan alat


Memakai peralatan teknis atau mekanis, seperti radio, televisi, surat kabar, dan semacamnya.


5. Bersifat terbuka


Pesannya dapat diterima oleh siapa saja dan dimana saja tanpa mengenal batas usia, jenis kelamin, dan suku bangsa.


Karakteristik Media Online

Karakteristik utama media online adalah hanya bisa diakses melalui internet. Asep Syamsul M. Romli (2012), menyebutkan karakteristik media online sebagai berikut:


1. Multimedia


Dapat memuat atau menyajikan berita/informasi dalam bentuk teks, audio, video, grafis dan gambar secara bersamaan.


2. Aktualitas


Berisi info aktual karena kemudahan dan kecepatan penyajian.


3. Cepat


Saat berita diposting atau diuploud, berita dapat langsung diakses oleh semua orang.


4. Update


Pembaruan (updating) informasi dapat dilakukan dengan cepat baik dari sisi konten maupun redaksional, misalnya dalam kesalahan ketik/ejaan.


5. Kapasitas luas


Halaman web bisa menampung naskah sangat panjang.


6. Fleksibilitas


Pemuatan dan editing naskah bisa kapan saja dan dimana saja, juga jadwal terbit (update) bisa kapan saja, setiap saat.


Jenis-Jenis Website

Website adalah media online utama selain aplikasi. Jenis-jenis website dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai berikut:


1. Mesin Pencari (Search Engine)


Mesin pencari atau mesin telusur adalah situs web yang menjadi gerbang atau pintu masuk menuju berbagai informasi yang tersedia di internet, seperti Google, Bing, Yandex, Baidu, Yahoo dan lainnya.


2. Portal


Portal adalah website yang menyediakan beraneka ragam jenis informasi, yaitu portal berita (news portal) atau situs berita, seperti Reason.com, Igettalk.com, Detikcom, Republika Online, Antaranews, dan sebagainya. Ini yang disebut media online dalam pengertian khusus.


3. Media Sosial


Media sosial adalah situs web yang menjadi forum interaksi pengguna internet yang dikenal sebagai warga internet (warganet) atau internet citizen (netizen), Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, dan Instagram.


Media sosial menjadi sarana pertemanan, berbagi informasi, mengobrol, atau sekadar bertegur sapa.


4. Company Profile


Company profile adalah website lembaga atau perusahaan berisikan profil, visi, misi, tujuan, produk, layanan, dan kegiatan lembaga.


5. e-Commerce


Disebut juga toko online (online store/online shop), website ini merupakan toko online sebuah bisnis perdagangan yang menjual produk atau jasa.


6. Maktetplace


Marketplace adalah pasar online berupa situs jual beli. Transaksi barang dan jasa dilakukan secara online, seperti Lyoncherie, Bukalapak, Tokopedia, Lazada, Shopee, dan OLX.


Demikian pengertian media online dan karakteristiknya plus jenis-jenis website. Semoga dapat menambah wawasan kita tentang pengertian dan jenis-jenis media online.

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